Mecanismos de resistencia a la colistina, la nitrofurantoina y la fosfomicina en Enterobacterias

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.51481/amc.v65i2.1272

Palabras clave:

Enterobacteriaceae resistentes a los carbapenémicos, colistina, nitrofurantoína, fosfomicina, plásmidos

Resumen

Las enterobacterias son un grupo amplio y heterogéneo de bacilos Gram negativos que se aíslan de forma rutinaria en el laboratorio clínico y se asocian a una gran cantidad de cuadros clínicos. Aquellas resistentes a antibióticos de última línea, como a los carbapenémicos, representan un gran reto en los centros de salud. Ante la dificultad para tratar infecciones causadas por este tipo de bacterias, se ha retomado el uso de antimicrobianos clásicos como la colistina, la nitrofurantoína y la fosfomicina. El objetivo de este trabajo es detallar los principales mecanismos de resistencia para estos tres fármacos descritos en enterobacterias. Para ello, se efectuó una revisión bibliográfica de artículos científicos publicados entre los años 1999 y 2022, utilizando las bases de datos PubMed (NCBI), PLOS, Redalyc, Google Scholar y Science Direct. En este proceso, se usaron las palabras clave ""Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae"", ""colistin"", nitrofurantoin"", ""fosfomycin"", ""resistance"" y ""plasmids"". Se encontró que los mecanismos de resistencia son variados y abarcan fenómenos como modificación del sitio blanco, inactivación enzimática, impermeabilidad y eflujo. Además, los determinantes genéticos de resistencia se encuentran en cromosomas o en plásmidos. Conocer este tipo de información permite mejorar la vigilancia basada en el laboratorio, combatir el problema de resistencia a los antimicrobianos y optimizar el uso de estos antibióticos que forman parte del escaso arsenal para el tratamiento de ciertas infecciones causadas por microorganismos multidrogorresistentes.

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Citas

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Publicado

2023-08-01

Cómo citar

González-Carballo, G. C., & García-Marín, C. (2023). Mecanismos de resistencia a la colistina, la nitrofurantoina y la fosfomicina en Enterobacterias. Acta Médica Costarricense, 65(2), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.51481/amc.v65i2.1272

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