Revisión de los factores de riesgo y factores protectores para el cáncer de mama

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.51481/amc.v64i4.1177

Palabras clave:

Cáncer de mama, Mamografía, Factores de riesgo, Factores protectores

Resumen

Objetivo: Revisar los aspectos clínicos necesarios a tomar en cuenta por el médico tratante al interpretar los reportes de los hallazgos radiológicos en la mamografía y de otras pruebas diagnósticas para un diagnóstico integral del cáncer de mama.

Métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática de manuscritos publicados entre el 2010 y el 2020 sobre factores de riesgo y factores protectores que pueden verse involucrados en la incidencia del cáncer de mama. Se revisaron publicaciones de investigaciones realizadas en mujeres con diagnóstico de cáncer de mama de tipo ensayos clínicos aleatorizados, casos y controles, revisiones sistemáticas, metaanálisis y guías internacionales. Se buscó en las bases de datos bibliográficas PubMed, EBSCO y Scopus, publicaciones en inglés o español, utilizando términos provenientes de los Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud (DeCS).

Resultados: Se identificaron un total de 735 artículos en las búsquedas, de los cuáles se excluyeron 508 por su poca relevancia de acuerdo con el título. De los 227 restantes se excluyeron 22 por estar repetidos en las distintas bases, 12 porque no cumplían con los criterios de inclusión, 83 durante la revisión del resumen, y 28 al revisar el texto completo. En total se incluyeron 82 artículos para elaborar esta revisión. Los factores identificados en la revisión de la literatura se clasificaron en tres áreas: fisiopatológicos, gíneco-obstétricos y ambientales. Los factores de riesgo fisiopatológicos son la historia familiar, hiperplasia epitelial atípica, etnia, mayor edad, diabetes tipo II, síndrome metabólico, mayor peso y talla y mutaciones genéticas; los gíneco-obstétricos son la menarquía temprana, la menopausia tardía y la nuliparidad; y los ambientales incluyen fármacos, hábitos de vida, procedimientos médicos y alimentación. Mientras que, entre los factores protectores, los factores fisiopatológicos son el hipotiroidismo, el asma y la rinitis alérgica; los gínecoobstétricos son la multiparidad, el primer embarazo a una edad temprana y dar lactancia; y los ambientales incluyen fármacos, procedimientos médicos y alimentación.

Conclusiones: El conocimiento de los factores protectores y los factores de riesgo permitiría hacer un abordaje más integral en el diagnóstico y tratamiento del cáncer de mama.

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Publicado

2022-12-31

Cómo citar

Astorga-Ramírez, A., Sánchez-Portuguez, J., & Solís-Barquero, S. M. (2022). Revisión de los factores de riesgo y factores protectores para el cáncer de mama. Acta Médica Costarricense, 64(4), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.51481/amc.v64i4.1177