Manejo farmacológico del dolor en el paciente oncológico


  • Catalina Morales Alpizar Universidad de Gales
  • Isaias Salas Herrera Director del Centro Nacional de Control del Dolor y Cuidados Paliativos


Palabras clave:

dolor, cuidados paliativos, cáncer, opioides, analgesia


El dolor presenta una fisiopatología muy compleja, donde intervienen elementos que pueden llegar a ser difíciles de controlar. En el cáncer se identifican diferentes tipos de dolor de acuerdo con la o las estructuras afectadas. La proliferación de células neoplásicas puede afectar estructuras somáticas, vísceras, huesos, estructuras del sistema nervioso o tejidos blandos, por lo que el paciente con cáncer puede presentar cualquier manifestación del dolor, incluso de gran severidad. Existen múltiples medicamentos utilizados para el manejo de este tipo de dolor: antinflamatorios no esteroideos, antidepresivos tricíclicos, neuromoduladores, anestésicos locales, esteroides, bifosfonatos y opioides. Los opioides continúan siendo la piedra angular en el manejo del dolor por cáncer, sin embargo, aún hay barreras para su adecuado manejo.


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Cómo citar

Morales Alpizar, C., & Salas Herrera, I. (2004). Manejo farmacológico del dolor en el paciente oncológico. Acta Médica Costarricense, 46(3), 114–124.