Alergia al látex: historia, epidemiología, prevención y tratamiento

Autores/as

  • Oscar Porras Madrigal Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Dr. Carlos Sáenz Herrera"

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.51481/amc.v45i4.118

Palabras clave:

látex,, alergia, hule natural, guantes quirúrgicos, alergia al látex, alergia ocupacional, hule natural

Resumen

La alergia al látex de hule natural se ha convertido en un problema importante de salud en los trabajadores de la salud y en pacientes con espina bífida e intervenciones quirúrgicas múltiples. Las medidas preventivas permiten reducir la incidencia y son la mejor estrategia para intervenir en este problema de salud pública. Con el objetivo de aumentar el conocimiento sobre el problema de alergia al látex discutimos los aspectos relacionados con historia, epidemiología, diagnóstico, prevención y tratamiento. Se definen los términos sensibilización y alergia y se describen los aspectos químicos del látex de hule natural y de sus proteínas. La definición de grupos de riesgo permite desarrollar una estrategia en las instituciones de salud que disminuye la exposición y como consecuencia las manifestaciones clínicas de los individuos sensibilizados.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Citas

Hepner DL, Castells MC. Latex allergy: an update. Anesth Analg 2003;96: 1219-1229.

Ownby DR. Ahistory of latex allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110: S27-32.

Alenius H, Turjanmaa K, Palosuo T. Natural rubber latex allergy. Oc-cup Environ Med 2002; 59: 419-424.

Sala Constitucional de la Corte Suprema de Justicia. Sentencia 2003-1432 (6 de Mayo de 2003).

Tesiorowski CC. Latex allergies in the health care worker. J PerianesthNurs 2003; 18: 18-31.

Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products and Medical Devices.Opinion on natural rubber latex allergy. European Commission, Healthand Consumer Protection Directorate-General, Directorate B - Scienti-fic Health Opinions (27 de Junio de 2000) 2000: 1-35.

Turjanmaa K, Reunala T. Condoms as a source of latex allergen andcause of contact urticaria. Contact Dermatitis 1989; 83:1135-1137

Turjanmaa K. Diagnosis of latex allergy.Allergy 2001; 56: 810-812.

Quirce S, Olaguíbel JM, Alvarez MJ, Tabar AI. El látex. Un importan-te aeroalergeno implicado en el asma ocupacional. An sis sanit Navar2003; 26: S81-95.

Hosler D, Burkett SL, Tarkanian MJ. Prehistoric polymers: rubber pro-cessing in ancient Mesoamerica. Science 1999; 284: 1988-1991.

Quirce Gancedo S, Conde-Salazar Gómez L. Obtención y procesamien-to del caucho natural. En: Blanco Coverra C, Quirce Gancedo S (ed).Alergia al látex 2002. Sociedad Española de Alergia e ImmunologíaClínica. Barcelona: MRAEditions; 2002: 13-20.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for pre-vention of HIVtransmission in health-care settings. MMWR 1987; 36:35-185

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for preventionof transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virusto health-care and public safety workers. MMWR 1989; 38: 1-37.

Fuchs T. Latex allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994; 93: 951-952.15.Zucker-Pinchoff B. Latex allergy. Mt Sinai J Med 2002; 69: 88-95.

Nutter AF. Contact urticaria to rubber. Br J Dermatol 1979; 101: 597-598.

Kurup VP, Fink JN. The spectrum of immunologic sensitization in la-tex allergy.Allergy 2001; 56: 2-12.

Karisola P,Alenius H, Mikkola J, Kalkkinen J, Kalkkinen N, Helin J, etal. The major conformational IgE-binding epitopes of hevein (hevb6.02) are identified by a novel chimera-based allergen epitope map-ping strategy. J Biol Chem 2002; 277: 22656-22661.

Barber Hernández D, Lombardero Vega M. Composición alergénica dellatex. En: Blanco Coverra C, Quirce Gancedo S (ed). Alergia al látex2002. Sociedad Española de Alergia e Immunología Clínica. Barcelo-na: MRAEditions; 2002: 29-43

Sánchez Palacios A. Alergia al látex. Diagnóstico y aspectos terapéuti-cos. Allergol et Immunopathol 2001; 29: 212-221.

Ahmed DD, Sobcsak SC, Yunginger JW. Occupational allergies causedby latex. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2003; 23: 205-219.

Lundberg M, Wrangsjö K, Johansson SGO. Latex allergy from glovepowder-an unintended risk with the switch from talc to cornstarch.Allergy 1997; 52: 1222-1228.

Anda M, Gómez B, Lasa E, Arroabarren E, Garrido S, Echechipía S.Alergia al látex. Manifestaciones clínicas en la población general yreactividad cruzada con alimentos. An sis sanit Navar 2003; 26: S75-80.

Turjanmaa K, Alenius H, Reunala T, Palosuo T. Recent developmentsin latex allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2002; 2: 407-412.

Blanco Guerra C, Almeida Quintana L, García Dumpiérrez A. Manifes-taciones clínicas de la alergia al látex. En: Blanco Coverra C, QuirceGancedo S (ed). Alergia al látex 2002. Sociedad Española de Alergia eImmunología Clínica. Barcelona: MRAEditions; 2002: 47-62.

Lavaud F, Prevost A, Cossart C, Guerin L, Bernard J, Kochman S.Allergy to latex, avocado pear, and banana: evidence for a 30 kd anti-gen in immunoblotting. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995; 95:557-564.

Blanco C. Latex-fruit syndrome. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2003; 3: 47-53.

Sicherer SH. Clinical implications of cross-reactive food allergens. JAllergy Clin Immunol 2001; 108: 881-890.

Aalberse RC, Akkerdaas JH, van Ree R. Cross-reactivity of IgE antibo-dies to allergens. Allergy 2001; 56: 478-490.

Baur X, Chen Z, Allmers H. Can a threshold limit value for natural rub-ber latex airborne allergens be defined? J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101:24-27.

Heilman DK, Jones RT, Swanson MC, Yunginger JW.Aprospective,controlled study showing that rubber gloves are the major contributorto latex aeroallergen levels in the operating room. J Allergy Clin Immu-nol 1996; 98:325-330.

Brown RH, Schauble JF, Hamilton RG. Prevalence of latex allergyamong anesthesiologists: identification of sensitized but asymptomaticindividuals. Anesthesiology 1998; 89: 292-299.

Schwartz LB, Bradford TR, Rouse C, Irani AM, Rasp G, Van der ZwanJK, et al. Development of a new, more sensitive immunoassay for hu-man tryptase: use in systemic anaphylaxis. J Clin Immunol 1994; 14:190-204.

Castells MC, Irani AM, Schwartz LB. Evaluation of human peripheralblood leukocytes for mast cell tryptase. J Immunol 1987; 138: 2184-2189.

Blanco Guerra C, García Dumpiérrez A, Almeida Quintana L. Utilidady limitaciones de las técnicas diagnósticas. En: Blanco Coverra C,Quirce Gancedo S (ed). Alergia al látex 2002. Sociedad Española deAlergia e Immunología Clínica. Barcelona: MRAEditions; 2002: 101-119.

Hamilton RG, Peterson EL, Ownby DR. Clinical and laboratory-basedmethods in the diagnosis of natural rubber latex allergy. J Allergy ClinImmunol 2002; 110: S47-56.

Liss GM, Sussman GL. Latex sensitization: occupational versus gene-ral population prevalence rates. Am J Ind Med 1999; 35: 196-200.

Archambault S, Malo JL, Infante-Rivard C, Ghezzo H, Gautrin D. In-cidence of sensitization, symptoms, and probable occupational rhino-conjunctivitis and asthma in apprentices starting exposure to latex. JAllergy Clin Immunol 2001; 107: 921-923.

Garabrant DH, Schweitzer S. Epidemiology of latex sensitization andallergies in health care workers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002; 110:S82-95.

Carrillo Diaz T, Figueroa Rivero J, Navarro Déniz L, Ortega RodríguezN. Epidemiología y factores de riesgo de la alergía al látex. En: Blan-co Coverra C, Quirce Gancedo S (ed). Alergia al látex 2002. SociedadEspañola de Alergia e Immunología Clínica. Barcelona: MRAEditions;2002: 85-97.

Hochleitner B-W, Menardi G, Haussler B, Ulmer H, Kofler H, ReiderN. Spina bifida as an independent risk factor for sensitization to latex.J Urol 2001; 166: 2370-2374.

Obojski A, Chodorski J, BargW, M?drala W, Fal AM, Ma?olepszy J.Latex allergy and sensitization in children with spina bifida. PediatrNeurosurg 2002; 37: 262-266.

Nieto Garcia A, Mazón Ramos A, Pamies Espinoza R, Díaz Ruiz J. Es-pina bífida y alergia al látex. En: Blanco Coverra C, Quirce Gancedo S(ed). Alergia al látex 2002. Sociedad Española de Alergia e Immunolo-gía Clínica. Barcelona: MRAEditions; 2002: 149-174.

Randolph C. Latex allergy in pediatrics. Curr Probl Pediatr 2001; 31:135-153.

Muller BA. Minimizing latex exposure and allergy. How to avoid or re-duce sensitization in the healthcare setting. Postgrad Med 2003; 113:91-97.

6 .Brehler R, Kütting B. Natural rubber latex allergy: a problem of interdis-ciplinary concern in medicine. Arch Intern Med 2001; 161: 1057-1064.

Baur X, Chen Z, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Degens P. Protein and allergencontent of various natural latex articles. Allergy 1997; 52: 661-664.

Tabar AI, Gómez B, Arroabarren E, Rodríguez M Lázaro I, Anda M.Perspectivas de tratamiento de la alergia al látex: inmunoterapia. An sissanit Navar 2003; 26: S97-102.

Sastre Domínguez J. Inmunoterapía con látex. En: Blanco Coverra C,Quirce Gancedo S (ed). Alergia al látex 2002. Sociedad Española deAlergia e Immunología Clínica. Barcelona: MRAEditions; 2002: 247-252.

Patriarca G, Nucera E, Buonomo A, Del Ninno M, Roncallo C, Pollas-trini E, et al. Latex allergy desensitization by exposure protocol: fivecase reports. Anesth Analg 2002; 94: 754-758. Patriarca G, Nucera E,Pollastrini E, Roncallo C, Buonomo A, Bartolozzi F, et al. Sublingualdesensitization: a new approach to latex allergy problem. Anesth Analg2002; 95: 956-960. Nucera E, Schiavino D, Pollastrini E, Roncallo C,de Pacuale T, Buonomo A, et al. Desensitization to latex by percuta-neous route. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2002; 12: 134-135.

Beezhold DH, Hickey VL, Sussman GL. Mutational analysis of the IgEepitopes in the latex allergen Hev b 5. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107: 1069-1076.

Milgrom H, Fick RB Jr, Su JQ, Reimann JD, Bush RK, Wathous ML,Metzger WJ. Treatment of allergic asthma with monoclonal anti-IgEantibody. rhuMAb-E25 study group. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 1966-1973.

Turjanmaa K, Kanto M, Kautiainen H, Reunala T, Palosuo T. Long-term outcome of 160 adult patients with natural rubber latex allergy. JAllergy Clin Immunol 2002; 110: S70-74.

Hunt LW, Boone-Orke JL, Fransway AF, Fremstad CE, Jones RT,Swanson MC, et al. Amedical-center-wide, multidisciplinary approach

to the problem of natural rubber latex alergy. J Occup Environ Med1996; 38: 765-770.

Hunt LW, Kelkar P, Reed CE, Yunginger JW. Management of occupa-tional allergy to natural rubber latex in a medical center: the importan-ce of quantitative latex allergen measurement and objective follow-up.JAllergy Clin Immunol 2002; 110: S96-106.

Sussman GL, Liss GM, Deal K, Brown S, Cividino M, Siu S, et al. In-cidence of latex sensitization among latex glove users. J Allergy ClinImmunol 1998; 101: 171-178.

Phillips VL, Goodrich MA, Sullivan TJ. Health care worker disabilitydue to latex allergy and asthma: a cost analysis. Am J Public Health1999; 89: 1024-1028.

Bolyard EA, Tablan OC, Williams WW, Pearson ML, Shapiro CN,Deitchman SD, et al. Guideline for infection control in health care per-sonnel, 1998. AJIC 1998; 26: 289-354.

De La Hoz Caballer B. Estrategias para la prevención de la alergia allátex. En: Blanco Coverra C, Quirce Gancedo S (ed). Alergia al látex2002. Sociedad Española de Alergia e Immunología Clínica. Barcelo-na: MRAEditions; 2002: 213-244.

Allmers H, Brehler R, Chen Z, Rauf-Heimsoth M, Fels H, Baur X. Re-duction of latex aeroallergens and latex-specific IgE antibodies in sen-sitized workers after removal of powered natural rubber latex gloves ina hospital. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998; 102: 841-846.

Charous BL, Schuenemann PJ, Swanson MC. Passive dispersion of la-tex aeroallergen in a healthcare facility.Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol2000; 85: 285-290.

Swanson MC, Bubak ME, Hunt LW,Yunginger JW,Warner MA, ReedCE. Quantification of occupational latex aeroallergens in a medicalcenter. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994; 94: 445-451.

Quirce S, Swanson MC, Fernandez-Nieto M, de las Heras M, Cuesta J,Sastre J. Quantified environmental challenge with absorbable dustingpowder aerosol from natural rubber latex gloves. J Allergy Clin Immu-nol 2003; 111: 788-794.

Cremer R, Hoppe A, Kleine-Diepenbruck U, Blaker F. Effects ofprophylaxis on latex sensitization in children with spina bifida. Eur JPediatr Surg 1998; 8: 59.

Cremer R, Kleine-Diepenbruck U, Hering F, Holschneider AM. Reduc-tion of latex sensitization in spina bifida patients by a primary prophy-laxis programme (five years experience). Eur J Pediatr Surg 2002; 12:S19-21.

Nakamura CT, Ferdman RM, Keens TG, Davidson Ward SL. Latexallergy in children on home mechanical ventilation. Chest 2000; 118:1000-1003.

Gentili A, Ricci G, Di Lorenzo FP, Pigna A, Masi M, Baroncini S. La-tex allergy in children with oesophageal atresia. Paediath Anaesth 2003;13: 668-675.

Kotilainen HR. Latex and vinyl examination gloves. Quality controlprocedures and implications for health care workers. Arch Intern Med1989; 149: 2749-2753.

Crippa M, Belleri L, Mistrello G, Carsana T, Neri G, Alessio L. Preven-tion of latex allergy among health care workers: evaluation of the ex-tractable latex protein content in different types of medical gloves. AmJ Ind Med 2003; 44: 24-31.

Ownby DR. Strategies for distinguishing asymptomatic latex sensitiza-tion from true occupational allergy or asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Im-munol 2003; 90: S42-46

Kotilainen HR, Avato JL, Gantz NM. Latex and vinyl nonsterile exami-nation gloves: status report on laboratory evaluation of defects by phy-sical and biological methods. Appl Environ Microbiol 1990; 56: 1627-1630.

Charous BL, Blanco C, Tarlo S, Hamilton RG, Baur X, Beezhold D, etal. Natural rubber latex allergy after 12 years: recommendations andperspectives. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002; 109: 31-34.

Baur X. I are we closer to developing threshold limit values for aller-gens in the workplace?. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2003; 90: S11-18

Descargas

Publicado

2003-10-01

Cómo citar

Porras Madrigal, O. (2003). Alergia al látex: historia, epidemiología, prevención y tratamiento. Acta Médica Costarricense, 45(4), 145–153. https://doi.org/10.51481/amc.v45i4.118

Artículos más leídos del mismo autor/a

1 2 > >>