Hidroxicloroquina: Del fármaco de herencia Inca hasta la inmunología moderna

Autores/as

  • Alberto Alfaro-Murillo Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, Hospital México
  • María Paz León Bratti Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, Hospital México

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.51481/amc.v62i2.1062

Palabras clave:

hidroxicloroquina, quinina, autoinmunidad, receptores Toll-Like, enfermedades de la retina

Resumen

La hidroxicloroquina es un antiguo fármaco proveniente del árbol de quino (Cinchona pubescens), a partir del componente químico alcaloide llamado quinina. Sus primeros usos se documentaron en el Imperio Inca del Perú. Se caracteriza por distintos efectos beneficiosos en enfermedades inmunológicas, al disminuir los procesos de autoinflamación y autoinmunidad persistente.

Esta revisión se enfoca en describir los mecanismos inmunomoduladores de la hidroxicloroquina, así como los efectos del fármaco en algunas de las enfermedades autoinmunes más prevalentes: lupus eritematoso sistémico, artritis reumatoide, síndrome de Sjögren, vasculitis sistémicas, nefropatía por IgA, síndrome antifosfolípido, distintas enfermedades inmunológicas de la piel. También se revisarán los efectos adversos descritos para este fármaco, especialmente la toxicidad de retina, que es el más temido.

Descriptores: hidroxicloroquina, quinina, autoinmunidad, receptores Toll-Like, enfermedades de la retina.

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Biografía del autor/a

Alberto Alfaro-Murillo, Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, Hospital México

Universidad de Costa Rica, Sistema de Estudios de Posgrado

María Paz León Bratti, Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, Hospital México

Universidad de Costa Rica, Sistema de Estudios de Posgrado

Citas

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Publicado

2020-06-01 — Actualizado el 2020-09-09

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Cómo citar

Alfaro-Murillo, A., & León Bratti, M. P. (2020). Hidroxicloroquina: Del fármaco de herencia Inca hasta la inmunología moderna. Acta Médica Costarricense, 62(2), 57–64. https://doi.org/10.51481/amc.v62i2.1062 (Original work published 1 de junio de 2020)

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